What are medical equipment and supplies?

medical equipment-dentistry

Medical equipment

Medical equipment refers to instruments, equipment, appliances, materials, or other items used on the human body alone or in combination, and also includes required software. Medical equipment is the most basic element of medical treatment, scientific research, teaching, institutions, and clinical subjects. It includes professional medical equipment as well as household medical equipment.

definition

Medical equipment is the basic condition for continuously improving the level of medical science and technology, and it is also an important sign of the degree of modernization. Medical equipment has become an important field of modern medicine. The development of medical treatment depends to a large extent on the development of instruments, and even in the development of the medical industry, its breakthrough bottleneck has also played a decisive role.

Medical equipment refers to instruments, equipment, appliances, materials, or other items used on the human body alone or in combination, and also includes required software. The therapeutic effect on the human body surface and in the body is not obtained through pharmacological, immunological or metabolic means, but medical device products play a certain auxiliary role. During the period of use, it aims to achieve the following expected purposes: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and alleviation of diseases; diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, alleviation, and compensation of injuries or disabilities; research, substitution, and adjustment of anatomical or physiological processes ; Pregnancy control.

classification

There are three categories of medical equipment that are more advocated, namely, diagnostic equipment, therapeutic equipment, and auxiliary equipment.

  1. Diagnostic equipment can be divided into eight categories: X-ray diagnostic equipment, ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, functional inspection equipment, endoscopy equipment, nuclear medicine equipment, laboratory diagnostic equipment and pathological diagnostic equipment.
  2. Therapeutic equipment can be divided into 10 categories: ward nursing equipment (patient beds, carts, oxygen cylinders, gastric lavage machines, needle-free syringes, etc.); surgical equipment (operating beds, lighting equipment, surgical instruments and various tables and racks) , Stools, cabinets, and also includes microsurgery equipment); radiotherapy equipment (contact therapy machine, shallow therapy machine, deep therapy machine, accelerator, 60 cobalt therapy machine, radium or 137 cesium intracavitary therapy and after-installation device therapy, etc. ); Nuclear medicine treatment equipment-treatment methods include internal radiation treatment, application treatment and colloid treatment; physical and chemical equipment (in general, it can be divided into four categories: phototherapy business, electrotherapy equipment, ultrasound treatment and sulfur therapy equipment); laser equipment— Medical laser generator (commonly used are ruby ​​laser, helium-neon laser, carbon dioxide laser, argon ion laser and YAG laser, etc.); dialysis treatment equipment (commonly used artificial kidneys include flat-type artificial kidneys and tubular artificial kidneys); Body temperature freezing equipment (semiconductor cold knife, gas cold knife, solid cold knife, etc.); first aid equipment (cardiac defibrillation and pacing equipment, artificial ventilator, ultrasonic nebulizer, etc.); other treatment equipment (hyperbaric oxygen chamber, ophthalmology high Frequency electric chromator, electromagnetic iron absorber, vitreous cutter, blood separator, etc.). These all belong to the special treatment equipment for each department, and can be divided into a separate category if necessary.
  3. Auxiliary equipment can be divided into the following categories: disinfection and sterilization equipment, refrigeration equipment, central suction and oxygen supply system, air conditioning equipment, pharmaceutical machinery equipment, blood bank equipment, medical data processing equipment, medical video and photography equipment, etc.

The medical devices in the hospital can be divided into three categories, namely, the two major categories of diagnostics and therapeutics, and the different requirements of each level of necessary medical devices.

  1. Diagnostic equipment can be divided into the following categories:
    Physical diagnostic equipment (thermometers, blood pressure meters, microscopes, audiometers, various physiological recorders, etc.), imaging (X-ray machines, CT scans, magnetic resonance, B-ultrasound, etc.), analytical instruments (various types of counters) , Biochemical, immunological analysis equipment, etc.), electrophysiology (such as electrocardiograph, EEG, electromyography, etc.).
  2. The treatment equipment category can be divided into the following categories:
    Ordinary surgical instruments, light-guided surgical instruments (fiber endoscopes, laser treatment machines, etc.); auxiliary surgical instruments (such as various anesthesia machines, ventilators, extracorporeal circulation, etc.); radiotherapy machines (such as deep X-ray treatment machines, cobalt 60 Therapeutic machine, accelerator, gamma knife, various isotope therapy devices, etc.); other types (microwave, hyperbaric oxygen, etc.).
  3. The grade requirements of medical equipment necessary for the hospital can be divided into the following three categories:
    The first category refers to medical devices whose safety and effectiveness can be guaranteed through routine management; the second category refers to medical devices whose safety and effectiveness should be controlled; and the third category refers to medical devices that are implanted in the human body and used To support and maintain life; medical devices that are potentially dangerous to the human body and whose safety and effectiveness must be strictly controlled.

It is worth noting that if a medical device contains Class I and Class II, then the medical device is Class II. If a medical device contains two and three categories, then the medical device belongs to three categories. By analogy, everyone can come to the same conclusion.
Various simple household medical devices such as clinical thermometers, stethoscopes, blood pressure monitors, etc., with the development of electronic technology, automatic and semi-automatic electronic household medical devices such as electronic blood pressure monitors, blood glucose testers, and electronic clinical thermometers have been put on the market one after another.

characteristic

Medical equipment in a broad sense includes medical equipment and household medical equipment, while professional medical equipment does not include household medical equipment. It can be seen that while they are closely related, they are also an inclusive relationship, and the subtle differences are not difficult to see.
Repair and maintenance of large-scale medical equipment, equipment installation and equipment scrapping are one of the main tasks of the equipment department in the hospital. It is directly related to the safety of the use of equipment, the effectiveness of the inspection and testing of clinical medical equipment, and the Collaboration and continuity of medical work throughout the hospital. The basic point of the development and design of the system is how the equipment department uses limited manpower, material resources and limited resources. It is very important to ensure the normal utilization rate of equipment in consideration of cost-effectiveness to achieve a higher degree of autonomous maintenance. Subject.
According to the specificity of medical equipment maintenance, this article uses digital bar code coding and equipment self-numbering to build files for repairing and repairing equipment, and comprehensive statistics of equipment repair, maintenance, installation and equipment obsolescence data through computer comprehensive statistics.

System design goals

The following describes the system from several characteristics of the system, focusing on providing a development idea, rather than a simple system.

  • Intelligent
  • A large-scale hospital equipment maintenance management system should not simply repeat manual procedures, it should be a program with intelligent characteristics. This system contains several EOQ modules, specially set equipment maintenance alarm prompts. When a piece of equipment to be repaired is sent to the equipment section for maintenance, the computer will automatically remind it (according to the validity period of the equipment to be repaired) because the maintenance engineer has not repaired it in time, and the alarm is divided into three levels (and audible and visual alarms). Normally, when the system is in the login interface, it adopts the server module type, and checks it every once in a while. If the maintenance equipment needs to be repaired, the system will use sound and light alarms on the operation interface to promptly remind the engineer to repair.

The system provides modules for equipment classification, equipment management, spare parts management, information management, report output and statistical analysis, which can perform statistical analysis on various maintenance work indicators, and display the statistical analysis results in the form of tables. Such as the maintenance statistics of maintenance equipment, the number of equipment submitted for inspection, the repair rate of equipment maintenance, the return rate of equipment maintenance and the statistics of component inventory, and the analysis of equipment scrap factor.
For data integrity and security, we use code to implement automatic database backup and restore functions, and system administrators can also manually backup and restore data. Another technology is a strict authorization mechanism. The administrator assigns different management rights according to the responsibilities of engineers and operators.

  • stability
  • The computer system adopts Windows XP Advanced Server, and through background data collection, it provides engineers with a high-performance client and server platform. The data processing method using this system is quite simple. It can process various display formats and print data reports. Complicated data and reports can be processed freely.

use

Medical equipment is an important symbol of the degree of modernization, the most basic element of medical treatment, scientific research, teaching and research, and teaching, and it is also the basic condition for continuously improving the level of medical science and technology. The development of clinical disciplines depends to a large extent on the development of instruments and even plays a decisive role. Therefore, medical equipment has become an important field of modern medicine. Medical equipment refers to instruments, equipment, appliances, materials or other items used on the human body alone or in combination, including the required software; its function on the body surface and in the body is not obtained by pharmacological, immunological or metabolic means, but These means may participate and play a certain auxiliary role; their use is intended to achieve the following expected purposes:
(1) Prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and alleviation of diseases;
Professional medical equipment
(2) Diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, mitigation, and compensation for injury or disability;
(3) Research, substitution, and adjustment of anatomical or physiological processes;
(4) Pregnancy control.

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